Although some tattoo artists hold degrees in visual or fine arts, there aren’t any academic institutions specialized in teaching tattooing as a course of study. However, this doesn’t take away from the fact that tattooing is a lengthy process to learn and master. And as such, it has peculiarities and difficulties only apparent to those familiar with the profession.
While the experiences of tattoo parlor clients are often in the limelight, the process of a tattoo artist is rarely part of the conversation. There are many elements involved in the tattooing process that the general public is not aware of.
Before even being able to sit down and tattoo a client, a tattooist faces many decisions. Whether they be choosing the right tattoo machine and needles or learning proper safety measures, some of the crucial steps the client might have never thought about are:
Turning an Idea into a Reality
Creating a design is the obvious first step in the process of tattooing. An initial consultation where a client communicates their ideas and expectations is necessary for a tattoo artist to start working on a design; no matter how passionate or convinced of the quality of their design idea a client might be, the artist’s input is always essential
While some clients have a clearer idea of what they want than others, it’s the artist’s task to turn the abstract into a reality. First, a tattooist must identify the main graphic elements of the design, to later adapt them to suit the desired placement accordingly.
While getting to a point where both the client and tattoo artist are satisfied with the final design might take more than one consultation, honest communication is necessary to avoid future regrets on the client’s part.
Transferring the Design onto Skin: Hectograph vs. Thermographic Paper
Once the design is approved by the client, rather than directly drawing onto skin, modern tattoo artists recreate the final design on tattoo transfer paper. Tattoo transfer paper comes in two variations:
Hectograph transfer paper contains three sheets. Before starting to work, the artist removes the middle layer. This allows the hand-drawn design on the upper sheet to be transferred immediately onto the bottom layer.
A substance known as stencil stay is then applied on the skin, after which the tattooist positions the hectograph paper over the desired placement. After being set in place, the transfer process ends once the artist wipes the hectograph paper with a damp cloth or sponge, which imprints the design onto the client’s skin.
Another option is using thermographic paper. This type of tattoo transfer paper consists of four layers. It allows the artist to automatize the transfer process by placing a design made on a regular white sheet between two layers of thermal transfer paper.
Afterwards, the tattooist places the total amount of sheets within a thermogenic transfer maker. Once the transfer paper leaves the machine, a precise replica of the finished design is ready. However, before proceeding with the application, the desired placement is prepared with soapy water. Shortly after, the transfer paper is pressed and smoothed over the skin, leaving an imprint of the design once removed.
Although certainly less cost-effective, not only does thermographic paper allow an artist to save time, it also creates more visible and precise outlines. Moreover, unlike hectograph paper, which creates purple outlines, thermographic paper comes in a variety of colors. This poses an advantage when tattooing darker skin tones where the traditional purple is barely noticeable.
Tattoo Ink: A Chemistry of Color
Tattoo ink comprises a mixture of a carrier and a pigment. In simple terms, a carrier allows the ink to be sterilized and evenly distributed in fluid form. Some of the most commonly used carriers are purified water, ethyl alcohol, glycerin, and witch hazel. Meanwhile, a pigment is what gives tattoo ink its color. Traditionally, these colorants are derived from minerals like iron oxide and cinnabar.
However, as technological advancements have modernized the tattooing process over the past decades, tattoo artists can now choose from a wide variety of ink to work with. Depending on their chemical composition, tattoo inks are classified as:
The most widely used tattoo ink around the world gets its pigments from heavy metals (zinc, nickel, aluminum, titanium, etc.), metal oxides (ferrocyanide and ferricyanide), as well as other chemicals like calcium, lithium, and sulfur, etc. On the other hand, traditional tattoo ink uses ethyl alcohol or water as carriers
However, many concerns have arisen regarding the risks and toxicity of certain materials used to create regular ink. For instance, although plastic-based inks produce more vibrant colors, they have been known to trigger allergic reactions; other chemicals like titanium dioxide can darken over time and be difficult to remove even with the latest laser technology.
Moreover, the use as carriers of denatured alcohols, methyl alcohol, and isopropyl alcohol (all toxic substances) can burn the skin. As a byproduct of the concerns related to the safety of mineral and chemical-based materials, organic pigments have become the norm.
By 2015, a report published by the Joint Research Center of the European Commission found that “organic pigments represent over 80% of the colorants in use, more than 60% of them are azo-pigments.” Nevertheless, the same report linked azo-pigments with the release of carcinogens, a substance that promotes the formation of cancer in living tissue.
Vegan Tattoo Ink
While the use of organic pigments will give most peace of mind, certain organic materials conflict with the beliefs of those who abide by a vegan lifestyle. Some animal products found in ink are bone char, glycerin extracted from animal fat, and gelatin from hooves
Nevertheless, that’s why many lines of vegan ink (and even vegan-only tattoo shops) exist nowadays to offer an alternative to animal byproducts. Carbon, vegetable glycerin, logwood, turmeric, dioxazine, and carbazole are ingredients commonly used in vegan ink.
On the other hand, while most vegan ink distributors swear their products offer the safest ink variety there is on the market, specialists like dermatologist Jørgen Serup advise further research is needed to support such claims.
As a trend that has steadily risen in popularity since the 90’s, blacklight ink is the clear choice for those who seek a stealthier look. Depending on the selected color, ink will blend with a client’s skin differently. While white blacklight ink is, in most cases, barely visible under daylight, more vibrant colors are spotted as easily as regular ink. However, in all cases, blacklight tattoos glow vividly under UV light.
As it’s the case with azo-pigments, some concerns have arisen regarding blacklight ink’s potential to make users develop cancer. Certain brands of blacklight ink contain phosphorus, a toxic chemical element associated with the disease.
Nevertheless, some reputable ink brands offer phosphorus-free ink. Phosphorus (commonly used in glow sticks) is far more prominent in glow-in-the-dark tattoos, which light up without needing exposition to UV-light.
Blacklight tattoos not only pose some health risks, they are also harder to execute and more expensive. Tattooists will need to work under UV light to apply blacklight ink, which might be uncomfortable for some artists. Moreover, as blacklight ink is thinner than the regular kind, applying it will require longer sessions and a more skilled and experienced tattoo artist.
Removable Tattoo Ink
But what about those who are unsure about getting a tattoo for fear of regretting it later on? In 2014, Ephemeral Tattoo founders Seung Shin and Anthony Lam set out to develop a type of tattoo ink capable of disappearing on its own. They cited their motivation as providing an alternative to expensive and painful procedures like tattoo laser removal.
Unlike traditional tattoos, where ink consists of large pigments, removable tattoo ink encapsulates smaller dye molecules in spheres made of biomaterials. After approximately a year of remaining stable, this material breaks down on its own, allowing the immune system cells to naturally remove the dye molecules.
However, as of January 2020, Ephemeral has yet to launch any of their products.
Biomedically Engineered Ink
In 2018, a research team at the University of Colorado led by Carson Burns started working on a type of ink that would serve a medical purpose. Like blacklight ink, this biomedically engineered ink contains a color-changing dye that reacts to UV light and heat.
Nevertheless, rather than being purely esthetic, their application is meant to aid early detection and prevention of diseases. When overexposed to sunlight, these so-called “smart tattoos” become visible to signal the need to apply sunscreen, helping prevent the threat of skin cancer.
The research team is presently working on further applications like the detection of a shift in blood makeup, such as low blood sugar.
Coil, Rotary, And Pneumatic: Types of Tattoo Machines and Their Applications
Tattoo machines have come a long way since they first evolved from Thomas Edison’s electric pen, developed in 1875. From a technical standpoint, the most common types of tattoo machines are liners and shaders
Whereas liner machines are usually short-stroke devices that create solid lines with a single stroke, shaders are frequently long-stroke machines used to create gradients, sculpt lines, and add coloring. However, short-stroke shaders are also employed when creating subtle gradients.
On the other hand, depending on their mechanical characteristics, tattoo machines are classified as coil tattoo machines, rotary or linear tattoo machines, and pneumatic machines.
Coil Tattoo Machines
Coil tattoo machines were invented in 1891 by Sam O’Reilly, a tattooist who modified the electric pen so that it would introduce ink into the skin. The dual-coil configuration that’s still in use to this day was patented shortly after by Londoner Alfred Charles South.
The first coil tattoo machines were so heavy that they were often hung from ceilings to allow tattooists to easily operate them.
These tattoo machines are powered when an electromagnetic current passes through coils, which triggers the armature bar’s draw and release motion. They are easily identifiable by their characteristic buzzing sound. Furthermore, coil machines are many artists’ preferred choice when it comes to creating intricate line work.
However, as a disadvantage, coil machines pose a steep learning curve and require more maintenance when compared to other tattoo machines. Moreover, their internal composition of two coils and iron rods makes them quite heavy to use. This leaves artists more vulnerable to developing cramps on their hands and fingers while working long hours, which could hinder the quality of their work.
Rotary Tattoo Machines
On the other hand, rotary tattoo machines get powered by a small electric motor. Furthermore, their simpler inner mechanisms make them quieter devices in contrast to the loudness of coil and pneumatic machines.
Unlike coil machines, the needle head moves in a smoother up-and-down motion, allowing the tattoo needles to distribute the ink in a more fluid and even matter. However, this also means they are less effective when working with larger needles.
All in all, perhaps the greatest advantage of rotary machines comes from their versatility. These machines offer the possibility to create both line work as well as shading by simply selecting different types of needles.
Pneumatic Tattoo Machines
Over a century after the first developments of coil and rotary machines, Carson Hill introduced the pneumatic tattoo machine in 2000. Unlike previous tattoo machines, Hill’s device uses air compressors to power its motor.
This means the tattoo needles are driven up and down by applying pressurized air. The tattoo artist is also in control of how fast the needles move by adjusting the air pressure.
Not only are pneumatic tattoo machines extremely light and easy to maneuver, which makes them ideal when working on large pieces, they are also entirely autoclavable. As such, the device won’t sustain any damage if placed inside an autoclave (a container that kills all microorganisms by applying pressurized steam). There’s no need to disassemble pneumatic machines for their proper sterilization either.
Just like rotary models, pneumatic tattoo machines allow their user to exchange different types of round and flat needles for both lining and shading as they wish. Tattooists can also take the customization of this machine to the next level by adding gas or electric-powered air compressors to the device.
While this is the perfect choice for tattooists who want to set up shop in remote areas, as gas air compressors entirely remove the need for electricity, they also make the device bulkier, making them harder to operate.
Selecting the Right Needle for the Task At Hand
When it comes to purchasing tattoo needles, a traditional coding system is set in place to easily distinguish a needle’s characteristics in terms of diameter, count, and grouping format.
For instance, a code like 1309RL translates as follows:
- The first two digits (13) indicate the needle’s diameter is .40 mm
- A second set of digits (09), signal to the number of points/needles
- Finally, the two last digits (RL), reference the type of needle, in this case, a round liner machine.
What do diameters determine? Simply put, they allow the artist to adjust the amount of ink that flows through the needles. For example, a needle of a narrower diameter allows the artist to achieve finer lines.
Similarly, needles come with different types of taper (the shape of the needle-point), which vary from the standard length of 1.5 mm to the extra-super-long taper of 8 mm. The finer the needle taper, the more it allows for precise work.
Furthermore, some of the best-known grouping formats are round needles, flat needles, magnum needles, and bugpin needles.
Round needles are a must for precision work. When closely packed together, they are ideal for technical work and details. If loosely packed, round liners are perfect for creating bold lines. On the other hand, and as their name suggests, round shaders are useful for color filling and basic shading.
Flat Shader Needles
Their flat shape allows for a higher flow of ink to the skin. Flat shader needles are great for shading geometric areas. These needles are also very popular for tattooing in the Trash Polka style, which combines realistic portraits with a chaotic touch of smears and smudges.
Magnum Shader Needles
They are, you guessed it, mainly used for shading. Their configuration makes them perfect for filling large areas of skin, blending, and shading.
Curved Magnum Needles
Although they achieve similar effects to those of the magnum shader, curved magnum needles cause less trauma to the skin. This makes them ideal for working in sensitive areas where clients may feel more pain.
Stacked Magnum Needles
These types of needles are configured by closely staking tattooing needles in two rows. This allows the tattooist to cover larger areas of skin at a faster pace.
Bugpins are needles with a narrow diameter. This makes them a preferred choice of needles for artists who seek to create subtle gradients. Bugpins are ideal for working in realistic portraits
The Sterilization Process
Although the law might vary depending on geographical region, most tattoo shops located in developed countries fall under the regulation of their city’s health department. This means shops need to maintain records of their sterilization procedures lest they get their permits removed.
Nowadays, sterilization by steam is the go-to choice for most tattoo establishments. Autoclaves encase the tattooing tools within a machine that looks similar to a pressure cooker. Once turned on, the autoclave heats water until it vaporizes. As the pressure within the chamber builds up to a minimum of 12 pounds for half an hour, the device kills off harmful bacteria.
Other lesser-known sterilization methods include gas. This is a quicker alternative but far more expensive, as even cheaper models will set back a tattoo shop at least a couple of thousands of dollars.
On the other hand, sterilization through dry heat, one of the earliest sterilization methods, requires the equipment to go inside an oven-like machine with the temperature set to a few hundred degrees. However, this is a more time-consuming procedure where over-exposure to heat can ultimately irreparably damage the equipment.
Other Health and Safety Measures
To get licensed as a tattoo artist in countries like the United States, tattooists have to take certain courses like cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), an essential emergency procedure to aid a person whose breathing and heart has stopped.
Moreover, artists need to go through bloodborne pathogens training courses. Since tattooists work in close contact with blood, this type of training teaches them methods on how to minimize the risk of being infected with illnesses like Hepatitis B and C, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis.
That is why, artists know the importance of washing their hands before starting to tattoo, as well as using gloves throughout the entire process (even when disposing of materials). To avoid contamination, the tattooists’ work area must also be separated from the service area of the tattoo shop.
Certain disposable materials like needles, ink-caps (needles should never directly be in contact with ink bottles), face masks, and gloves, are necessary to avoid contaminating the equipment and protecting both the artist and the client.
Spray bottles have to be placed inside plastic bags to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. Professionals recommend the client is present during the removal of the sterile packaging.
Furthermore, the desired tattooed area must be shaved and cleaned before starting the process. To further sanitize the work area, tattooists use virucide, a substance which inhibits the proliferation of viruses.
If more than one session is required to finish a piece, tattooists need to go through these safety measures all over again each time. Once everything is in place, a tattoo artist can finally get to work on turning their client’s design into a reality.
All in all, there’s no denying the complexities of tattooing as an art form. Not only do tattooists need to learn how to create stunning pieces, they also ought to get a hold on technical aspects, all the while keeping their clients and themselves safe. Perhaps it’s about time society starts giving the craft the respect it deserves. Wouldn’t you agree?